Posts Tagged ‘Mosaic’
My story about the restoration efforts at Hagia Sophia has been picked up by another site! Click the link below to view.
Uncovered mosaics at famed Hagia Sophia have art historians anxious to fully restore this national gem
Story and photos by Anthony Savvides
ISTANBUL, Turkey – It began in 1993 – a massive effort to stabilize and restore an architectural gem dating back to the 6th century. But today, a year after the Ministry of Culture and Tourism declared the project finished, there remains concern that work on the Hagia Sophia Museum is still not complete.
“Now, the restoration process has ended, maybe [due to] money problems. There may be some political agendas, too,” said Aslihan Erkman, a professor of art history at Istanbul Technical University who believes that the efforts should have continued.
Before the latest restoration efforts began, a mission to Turkey by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, or UNESCO, noted falling plaster, dirty marble facings, decorative paintings damaged by moisture and ill-maintained lead roofing. Progress was clearly made, but not enough, according to some observers.
In 2008, two years before work stopped on the space, Zeynep Ahunbay, a professor of architecture at Istanbul Technical University, talked of her frustration with the process.
“For months at a time, you don’t see anybody working,” Ahunbay told Smithsonian Magazine in 2008. “One year there is a budget, the next year there is none. We need a permanent restoration staff, conservators for the mosaics, frescoes and masonry, and we need to have them continuously at work.”
That’s one view of the project. Others watching during the nearly two decades of work – and after the scaffolding came down – talked of the somewhat complicated history of the space. Visible for miles across the city, the Hagia Sophia is a symbol of Istanbul’s history as well as its cultural and religious clashes.
The extravagant buttresses, grand dome and four brick minarets, towering toward the sky, have been a prominent feature of the city’s skyline since the 6th century, when it was completed in 537. This historic, grandiose landmark intertwines the legacies of medieval Christianity and Islam, and those of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires.
Until the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in 1453, Hagia Sophia served as the religious heart and core of the empire. After the Ottoman conquest of the former Byzantine capital, the building was turned into a mosque, which it remained until the early 20th century. In 1931, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the country’s first president and founder of the Republic of Turkey, closed Hagia Sophia and secularized it.
>>Click here to continue reading the story.
After a long, long night and early morning spent with the gang, my first story from Istanbul has been posted! I wrote about recent restoration efforts to the Hagia Sophia Museum in Istanbul. Click the link below to check it out:
Meanwhile, I’m not in the clear just yet. I’m still hard at work, completing my final story from Istanbul. Be sure to keep checking back here, you won’t want to miss my last story!
Everyone is all packed up by now, and I am at the hotel buffet with some friend chowing down on our final (unimaginative, boring, lame… insert more “I’m-so-sick-of-this-food” adjectives here) breakfast of this Dialogue of Civilizations program. We will depart the hotel and head for Ataturk International Airport 30 mintues from riiiight…. Now.
Note: This post was written on Sunday, May 29.
Late last night, my cousin Lisa informed me, via Skype from New York, that Bishop Savas Zembellis would be in Istanbul, leading a pilgrimage of Americans from the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. She forwarded his contact information, and I sent him an email to inquire about when he would arrive and where exactly the group would be. This morning, I awoke at 8am to an email response. The group was to attend liturgy at Agia Triada, a church in Taksim Square. This must have been one of the churches Itir referred to yesterday. I did some brief research online, but to no avail. I quickly showered, dressed, and hopped in a cab outside of the hotel. “Taksim Square,” I said. The driver nodded, and I was on my way. I traveled for about 25 minutes, and arrived in Taksim Square with no inclination of the church’s actual location. I wandered around the cobble pathways, asking people for directions here and there along the way. No one really knew what I was asking for, so I stopped at looked around. In the distance, beyond what seemed to be a few blocks and above a row or two of buildings in the skyline, I spotted a cross atop a domed structure. That had to be it. I began, once again, to navigate the twisted passageways, turning corners into alleys as I followed the cross. I lost sight of it, and backtracked. A cafe owner must have recognized the confusion that covered my face, and offered assistance. I pointed at the cross, which was only barely popping out over the towering buildings around us, now, and asked him to direct me to the church.
After a mostly non-verbal conversation, with a lot of pointing and hand gestures signaling left and right turns, I headed in what I hoped was the right direction. Within 5 minutes, I arrived at the concrete wall and iron gates of Agia Triada, a magnificent, majestic structure composed of marble and charcoal stone. I entered through the heavy, towering black doors into a bright room, where the sunlight pouring through the windows reflected off of the white marble floor and white walls. I lit a candle and proceeded through a second set of doors into the church.
The magnificent, grand mosaic churches here in Istanbul- formerly Byzantium- have an old-world feel to them, which I love. Not only do they bring me back to Cyprus and the Greek isles, but also to Amman, where the Byzantine Empire’s sphere of power and influence stretched over for a time. The sites we visited in Jordan, particularly Mount Nebo and Madaba, were filled with ancient Greek Orthodox churches and Byzantine sites, and I have found that here in Istanbul as well.
The whole liturgy at Agia Triada was in Greek, which was very welcoming, and comforting. Thus far, I have not understood much of anything in this city. Bareley anyone has spoken English, and I certainly do not understand Turkish, which I also find to be a very harsh, ugly language. Hearing the soothing chants and beautiful prayers in Greek made me feel that maybe there’s in fact something here for me in Istanbul. The Greek liturgy and prayers were a nice contrast to the English and Greek hybrid liturgies back home in New York, and even at the Annunciation Cathedral in Boston. This trip, while through Northeastern University and during which I am reporting and exploring new cultures, has also taken on a different sort of meaning for me. A hybrid journey, perhaps, partly educational and partly spiritual. I took some videos during the liturgy, one of which you can view below.
After the service, I ran into Bishop Savas Zembillas, who is the Bishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America and was in Constantinople, as he still affectionately calls it, on a pilgrimage with a group of 24 Greek Americans. Three of the 24 looked familiar to me, perhaps I met them many years ago through
GOYA, a church youth group. It was strange to see familiar faces here besides those peers from Northeastern University.
I spent the rest of the afternoon with them, visiting Hagia Sophia on the 554th anniversary of its fall to the Turks as well as Chora, an ancient monastery about 20 minutes away from Hagia Sophia. This monastery was also converted to a mosque, but was quickly turned into a museum and there are many more preserved mosaics than there are at Hagia Sophia. All of the mosaic artwork at Chora was a bit untraditional, as many depictions were of the parables and proverbs instead of the scriptures. As Bishop Savas explained, this artwork was extremely progressive for the Byzantine culture at the time, and it was also stifled when the city fell. Click the images below to enlarge.
While Byzantine culture and art forms flourished in what was formerly Constantinople, the Byzantine capital, it also ended prematurely here when the city was conquered. All of the intricate mosaic tiles were covered with plaster and some Arabic phrases from the Quran. This brings me to another similarity I have discovered between Jordan and Turkey, which is the coexistence of Christians and Muslims. While most Greek Orthodox Christians have left this city since its fall to the Ottoman
Empire in 1453 and as part of the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is still based here, and I hope to visit before I leave Istanbul. I was a bit surprised by this, given the rocky history between the two cultures and religions in this country. While Turkey has far fewer Christians than Jordan does, they still share this city peacefully.
First off, I have to share this video:
On my first morning at the Grand Yavuz Hotel, I went downstairs to the floor below the lobby, -1 in the elevator, where I ate breakfast with some of my peers. The selection no longer consisted of hummus, sage, and pita bread. Instead, there’s a giant glass bowl of Nutella, another filled with honey, corn flakes (among other cereal options), an entire table with baskets of bread, hard-boiled eggs and slices of pink grapefruit. On another countertop sit four pots, two with coffee, one of tea and one of hot milk. I ate two hard-boiled eggs and sipped a cup of tea before Denis came around to all of the tables to let us know that we would be assembling upstairs in the lobby for the tour.
We set off with Gokhan, our tour guide, up the hill to the main street.
Our procession lead us first to Topkapi Palace that was the official and primary residence of the Ottoman Sultansfor approximately 400 years (1465-1856) of their 624-year reign. It was massive, and reminded me of the Palace of Versailles outside of Paris. Apparently, if the Sultan decided he was tired, silence fell upon the entire domain. I wish my house worked like that, but I’m not a Sultan with his own palace. Wishful thinking…
After touring through the palace with Gokhan I was able to roam around on my own for 45 minutes. The building has a massive atrium garden in the center, lined with flowerbeds, trees and broken columns and pottery scattered across the lawn.
I took a stroll through an art gallery filled with portraits of all the Ottoman Sultans, and then moved on to a museum filled with Muslim artifacts, including Mohammed’s footprint and a lot of his swords. Throughout this museum, a man’s voice was echoing through the speakers as he read passages of the Quran. When I first walked in with my camera in hand, a security guard shook his head at me and waved his hand, motioning for me to leave. So, I walked out and back in, this time with my camera on and at my side. I took two illegal videos, which you can view here and here.
I quickly grew tired of Topkapi Palace, though, and spent the last 15 minutes of our allotted time hanging out with Cal and Carlene on the grass. Slowly, everyone in the group gathered and we left the palace and walked down the cobble pathway to the Blue Mosque. Since it was a Friday afternoon and prayer time, we didn’t get to go inside, but took a tour around the building. I’ll have to go back, at some point over the next two weeks, and see it for myself.
People were growing anxious, and we quickly departed and went to a restaurant nearby where we at lunch. I had some lentil soup, lots of pita bread, and a lamb kebob. The food was so fresh and bursting with flavor. I’m excited about eating the local Turkish cuisine over the next 18 days. Lunch was followed by two pieces of baklava, which was incredible, moist yet perfectly crunchy at the same time. I know they say the Turks invented baklava and the Greeks perfected it, but now I’m not so sure. I’ll have to visit the local ζαχαροπλαστείο(or zacharoplasteio, a Greek pastry shop) in Astoria when I get home.
After lunch, everyone assembled for the dreaded head count, and we headed to Hagia Sophia. This visit did not disappoint. Hagia Sophia (Ἁγία Σοφία, meaning Holy Wisdom) is everything I ever thought it would be and more- the structural design, the incredibly intricate and massive mosaic icons, the sky-high ceiling and even higher domes- awe-inspiring. Here are some photos, because words can’t do it justice.
Looking at them now, neither can the photographs. You all need to come visit Hagia Sophia to see it for yourselves.
From Hagia Sophia, the plan was to go back to the Blue Mosque now that prayers had ended and then to the Grand Bazaar, but I asked Carlene for permission to stay behind and spend more time at Hagia Sophia. After my inquiry, it became clear that many in the group felt the same way. So, Gokhan lead the bunch back to the hotel and everyone was allowed to split off instead. I felt bad for ending the tour abruptly, but it wasn’t just me, so I don’t feel that bad.
As people dispersed and left Hagia Sophia, both in the group and individually, I reentered the former Byzantine Greek Patriarchal cathedral of Constantinople, wandering through its many passageways. It was incredible to be in a place of worship, which, over the years, has been shared by Muslims and Christians alike. Why must we focus on our differences- God, Allah, Jesus, Mohammed, Bible, Quran- when the core beliefs are the same. To love one another and be respectful of all life are virtues preached by both faiths.
Looking out from the mezzanine and seeing the Blessed Virgin with Arabic, Islamic features all around, that the world should function more seamlessly the way Hagia Sophia exists. Maybe one day, we will learn to love one another, despite personal or religious differences. We are all one living organism here on Earth, one human race, and should not be divided by political boundaries or national borders.
This morning, we left from Amman and ventured west toward the Dead Sea.
On the way, we stopped in Madaba, an old city where the roads were filled with mosaic shops.
I entered the Greek Orthodox Church of Saint George, which houses the oldest mosaic map of the Holy Land. It was incredible to see this old house of worship. The artwork and icons that covered the walls were beautiful.
I spoke to the daughter of the gift shop owners, Christine. She told me that a monk named Solomon built the church in the 5th century. A strong earthquake destroyed the church in the 7th century, but the map of the Holy Land survived. A new church was built around this map later that century, and that is what has survived to this day. I felt very deeply spiritual standing in this ancient church. Here are some images from the church:
The mosaics are so intricately crafted that from afar I would have never guessed they were made of small glass pieces. Up close, their beauty can be fully realized.
After we left Madaba, we stopped at Mount Nebo, where it is said the Moses was buried, though there is no proof. The view from this peak, where Moses overlooked the Holy Land, was grand. Some pictures from Mount Nebo:
Atop the mountain, there was a museum of sorts under a tent where the mosaic floor was vast. A few feet away from the tent stood a museum with other artifacts, including carved stone structures and vases.
I also saw an old stone, the Abu Badd, that was used as a fortified doorway for an old Byzantine monastery.
Along the path, there were also some turkeys running around.